Substantivos Contáveis e Incontáveis em inglês – AULA COMPLETA

Substantivos Contáveis e Incontáveis em inglês

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Diferença e Exemplos de Substantivos Contáveis e Incontáveis
A maioria dos substantivos em inglês são contáveis, e portanto, possuem uma forma singular e plural. Veja alguns deles:

book – books => There is a book on the table, and there are five books on the sofa.
(livro – livros => Há um livro na mesa, e há cinco livros no sofá.)

bus – buses => That’s a blue bus. / Those are green buses.
(ônibus – ônibus => Aquele é um ônibus azul. / Aqueles são ônibus verdes.)

baby – babies => What a cute baby! / What cute babies!
(bebê – bebês => Que bebê fofo! / Que bebês fofos!)

man – men => He is a nice man. / They are nice men.
(homem – homens => Ele é um homem legal. / Eles são homens legais.)

woman – women => She is a smart woman. / They are smart women.
(mulher – mulheres => Ela é uma mulher esperta. / Elas são mulheres espertas.)

Já os substantivos incontáveis são coisas como líquidos, gases e substâncias em pó (água, ar, farinha, etc) ou coisas mais abstratas como sentimentos (raiva, medo) e outros que não possuem exatamente um início ou fim (conhecimento, dinheiro, areia) e por isso não se pode contar. Eles possuem somente uma forma singular. Aprenda alguns deles:

Água (water) é incontável:

There is water in my glass. I am drinking cold water.
(Há água no meu copo. Eu estou bebendo água gelada.)

Mas copo de água (glass of water), garrafa de água (bottle of water), litro (liter), gota (drop), etc. são contáveis:

Countable:
• a glass of water / glasses of water (um copo/s de água)
• a bottle of water / bottles of water (uma garrafa/s de água)
• a liter of water / liters of water (um litro/s de água)
• a drop of water / drops of water (uma gota/s de água), etc…

Exemplos:
I am thirsty. I will drink a glass of water.
(Eu estou com sede. Eu vou beber um copo d’água.)

I am very thirsty. I will drink 3 glasses of water.
(Eu estou com muita sede. Eu vou beber 3 copos d’água.)

• Dinheiro (money) é incontável:

He has money. He has a lot of money.
(Ele tem dinheiro. Ele tem muito dinheiro.)

Mas dólar (dolar) e outras moedas são contáveis. Também as palavras moeda (coin) e cédula (bill) são contáveis:

Countable:
• dollar / dollars (dólar/es)
• real / reais (real_reais)
• coin / coins (moeda/s)
• bill / bills (cédula/s), etc…

He has 50 dollars. He has 7 coins and 4 bills.
(Ele tem 50 dólares. Ele tem 7 moedas e 4 cédulas.)

• Areia (sand) é incontável:

This is sand. Sand is soft.
(Isto é areia. Areia é macia.)

Mas grão de areia (grain of sand), quilo de areia (kilo de areia) é contável:

• a grain of sand / grains of sand (um grão/s de areia)
• a kilo of sand (um quilo/s de areia), etc…

There are some grains of sand in my shoe.
(Há alguns grãos de areia no meu sapato.)

You need 2 kilos of sand.
(Você precisa de 2 kilos de areia.)

* Não use os artigos a/an (um ou uma) com substantivos incontáveis.

There is a water in my glass. (Há água no meu copo.)
I am walking on a sand. (Eu estou caminhando na areia.)

➢ Alguns substantivos incontáveis às vezes dependendo do contexto podem ser usados de
maneira contável. Por exemplo:

* beer (cerveja) / coffee (café) / tea (chá) / water (água) / bread (pão)

Yesterday, I ate 3 breads and drank 5 beers.
(Ontem, eu comi 3 pães e bebi 5 cervejas.)
=
Yesterday, I ate 3 pieces of bread and drank 5 bottles of beer.
(Ontem, eu comi 3 pedaços de pão e bebi 5 garrafas de cerveja.)

– Two coffees and three teas, please.
(Dois cafés e três chás, por favor.)

How much? (Quanto?) x How many? (Quantos?)

Com substantivos incontáveis pergunte “How much?” E com contáveis “How many?” Aprenda a diferença na prática com esta receita de panqueca (pancake recipe) e um pequeno diálogo.

Ingredients:
• flour (farinha)
• baking powder (fermento)
• sugar (açúcar)
• salt (sal)
• milk (leite)
• egg (ovo)
• butter (manteiga)

Quantity (quantidade)
– 1 cup of flour (1 xícara de farinha)
– 3 teaspoons of baking powder (3 colheres de chá de fermento)
– 1 tablespoon of sugar (1 colher de sopa de açúcar)
– 1 teaspoon of salt (1 colher de chá de sal)
– 2 cups of milk (2 xícaras de leite)
– 2 eggs (2 ovos)
– 3 tablespoons of butter (3 colheres de sopa de manteiga)

Mary: Mix the flour, baking powder, sugar and salt in a bowl.
(Misture a farinha, o fermento, o açúcar e o sal em uma vasilha.)

John: How much flour? (Quanta farinha?)

Mary: One cup. (Uma xícara.)

John: Sorry, how many cups of flour? (Desculpe, quantas xícaras de farinha?)

Mary: One. Pay attention. (Uma. Preste atenção.)

John: How much baking powder? (Quanto fermento?)

Mary: Three tablespoons of baking powder. (Três colheres de sopa de fermento.)

John: Repeat! How many teaspoons of baking powder? (Repita! Quantas colheres de chá de fermento?)

Mary: Three! Then, add the milk, eggs and the butter. (Três! Então, adicione o leite, ovos e a manteiga.)

John: How much milk? (Quanto leite?)

Mary: Two cups of milk. (Duas xícaras de leite.)

John: How many cups of milk? (Quantas xícaras de leite?)

Mary: Two. (Duas.)

John: How many eggs? (Quantos ovos?)

Mary: Two eggs. (Dois ovos.)

John: How much butter? (Quanta manteiga?)

Mary: Three tablespoons of butter. (Três colheres de sopa de manteiga.)

John: How many tablespoons of butter? (Quantas colheres de sopa de manteiga?)

Mary: Forget it. I can make the pancakes by myself. (Esqueça! Eu posso fazer as panquecas eu mesma.)


Mais exemplos:

– How much money do you have?
(Quanto dinheiro você tem?)

– I don’t know how much money I have.
(Eu não sei quanto dinheiro eu tenho.)

– How many cousins do you have?
(Quantos primos você tem?)

– I’m not sure how many cousins I have.
(Eu não tenho certeza quantos primos eu tenho.)

• Much and Many => a lot of / lots of (muito, muita, muitos, muitas)

I have a lot of energy. / I have much energy.
(Eu tenho muita energia.)

I have a lot of friends. / I have many friends.
(Eu tenho muitos amigos.)

Attention!

Many e much são preferivelmente usados em frases negativas e interrogativas.

I don’t have much energy. / Do you have much energy?
(Eu não tenho muita energia. / Você tem muita energia?)

I don’t have many friends. / Do you have many friends?

• A little and A few => some (algum, alguma, alguns, algumas, um pouco)

I need some sugar. / I need a little sugar.
(Eu preciso um pouco de açúcar.)

I need some cups of sugar. / I need a few cups of sugar.
(Eu preciso algumas xícaras de açúcar.)

She drinks some milk every day. / She drinks a little milk every day.
(Ela bebe um pouco de leite todo dia.)

She drinks some cartons of milk every day. / She drinks a few cartons of milk every day.
(Ela bebe algumas caixinhas de leite todo dia.)

Atenção!

I have less money than you.
(Eu tenho menos dinheiro que você.)

I have fewer friends than you.
(Eu tenho menos amigos que você.)

❖ Use less (menos) com incontáveis e fewer (menos) com contáveis.

You need less stress.
(Você precisa de menos stress.)

You need fewer problems.
(Você precisa de menos problemas.)


Não erre o uso das palavras abaixo!

Algumas palavras confundem, pois são contáveis em português mas incontáveis em inglês e portanto não podem ser usadas no plural.

Uncountable:
• information (informação)
• advice (conselho)
• news (notícias / novidade)

Here is the information about the project.
(Aqui está a informação sobre o projeto.)

She has some advice for you.
(Ela tem algum conselho para você.)

❖ Se precisar usar no plural, use “pieces of”: pieces of information / pieces of advice / pieces of news

We have two pieces of information to discuss with you. (NOT two informations)
(Nós temos dois “pedaços” de infotmação para discutir com você.)

– Can you give me some advice?
(Você pode me dar algum conselho?)

– Yes, I will give you three pieces of advice. (NOT three advices)
(Sim, eu vou te dar três “pedaços” de conselho.)

I heard some news today. I heard 2 pieces of news today. (NOT 2 news)
(Eu ouvi algumas notícias/novidades hoje. Eu ouvi 2 “pedaços” de notícias/novidades hoje.)

❖ E certas palavras podem ser tanto contáveis quanto incontáveis, mas com um sentidos diferentes.

• Time = tempo (incontável); vezes (contável)

– I have time to talk.
(Eu tenho tempo pra conversar.)

– How much time do you have?
(Quanto tempo você tem?)

– I visited Germany 3 times last year.
(Eu visitei a Alemanha 3 vezes ano passado.)

– How many times did you visit Germany last year?
(Quantas vezes você visitou a Alemanha ano passado?)

• Paper = papel (incontável); papers = jornais (mesmo que newspapers – contável)

I need paper. Can you give me five sheets of paper?
(Eu preciso de papel. Você pode me dar 5 folhas de papel?)

• Food (comida)

I eat a lot of food.
(Eu como muita comida.)

I can see different foods on the table.
(Eu posso ver diferentes comidas na mesa.)

Lista dos Substantivos Incontáveis Mais Comuns (150 palavras)

  • accommodation
  • advertising
  • air
  • aid
  • advice
  • anger
  • art
  • assistance
  • bread
  • business
  • butter
  • calm
  • cash
  • chaos
  • childhood
  • clothing
  • coffee
  • content
  • corruption
  • courage
  • currency
  • damage
  • danger
  • darkness
  • data
  • determination
  • economics
  • education
  • electricity
  • employment
  • energy
  • entertainment
  • enthusiasm
  • equipment
  • evidence
  • failure
  • fame
  • fire
  • flour
  • food
  • freedom
  • friendship
  • fuel
  • furniture
  • fun
  • genetics
  • gold
  • grammar
  • guilt
  • hair
  • happiness
  • harm
  • health
  • heat
  • help
  • homework
  • honesty
  • hospitality
  • housework
  • humor
  • imagination
  • importance
  • information
  • innocence
  • intelligence
  • jealousy
  • juice
  • justice
  • kindness
  • knowledge
  • labor
  • lack
  • laughter
  • leisure
  • literature
  • litter
  • logic
  • love
  • luck
  • magic
  • management
  • milk
  • money
  • motherhood
  • motivation
  • music
  • nature
  • nutrition
  • obesity
  • oil
  • oxygen
  • patience
  • permission
  • pollution
  • poverty
  • power
  • pride
  • production
  • progress
  • pronunciation
  • publicity
  • punctuation
  • racism
  • rain
  • relaxation
  • research
  • respect
  • rice
  • rubbish
  • safety
  • salt
  • sand
  • seafood
  • shopping
  • silence
  • smoke
  • snow
  • software
  • soup
  • speed
  • spelling
  • stress
  • sugar
  • sunshine
  • tea
  • tolerance
  • trade
  • traffic
  • transportation
  • travel
  • trust
  • understanding
  • unemployment
  • usage
  • violence
  • vision
  • warmth
  • water
  • wealth
  • weather
  • weight
  • welfare
  • wheat
  • width
  • wildlife
  • wisdom
  • wood
  • work
  • yoga
  • youth

Homework (Lição de casa) – Exercícios para praticar

a) Algumas frases estão corretas, mas algumas precisam dos artigos a/an. Escreva o artigo quando necessário.

1 I don’t have ring. a ring
2 Do you like cheese? correct
3 I never wear shirt. _____________
4 Are you looking for job? _____________
5 Kelly doesn’t eat vegetables. ___________
6 Kim eats orange every morning. ________
7 I’m going to restaurant tonight. ________
8 Music is wonderful thing. _____________
9 Cuba is island. _____________
10 I don’t need key. _____________
11 Everybody needs water. ____________
12 I have great idea. _____________
13 Can he drive car? _____________
14 Do you want cup of tea? ____________
15 I don’t like coffee without milk. ________
16 Don’t go out without sweater. _________

b) Complete com a, an ou some.

1 I read a magazine and listened to some music.
2 I need_______money. I need to buy_______food.
3 We always meet_______interesting people at our parties.
4 I will open_______window to get_______fresh air.
5 Rick didn’t eat much for breakfast — only_______cereal and_______bread.
6 They live in______big flat. There’s______nice balcony with______table and______chairs.
7 I’m going to make_________chair. So, I need_______wood.
8 Listen to your mom. She always gives you_______good advice.
9 I need to write a letter. I need_______paper, _______pen and________eraser.

c) Qual está certo?

1 She will buy new shoe/shoes.
2 Mary has green eye/eyes.
3 Paul has blond hair/hairs.
4 Our guide told us some information/informations about the monument.
5 They’re going to sell some chair/chairs.
6 He needs to buy some new furniture/furnitures.
7 It’s difficult to find a work/job at the moment.
8 We had wonderful weather/a wonderful weather last weekend.

d) Complete com much ou many.

1 Do you eat much food?
2 There aren’t_______________parks in my city.
3 We don’t have_______________gas. We need to stop at a gas station.
4 Are there_______________people in the mall today?
5 Did_______________students fail the test?
6 Marla doesn’t need_______________money.
7 I wasn’t thirsty, so I didn’t drink_______________water.

E agora com How much ou How many.

9_____________________clients are coming to the meeting?
10_____________________sugar do you want in your coffee?
11_____________________bread do you usually eat?
12_____________________players are there in a football team?

e) Responda com a little ou a few.

1 ‘Do you have any money? ‘ ‘Yes, a little.’
2 ‘Do you need any stamps?’ ‘Yes,________________.’
3 ‘Do you want sugar in your tea?’ ‘Yes, ________________.’
4 Did you take any photographs when you were on vacation?’ ‘Yes, ________________.’
5 ‘Does your husband speak English?’ ‘Yes,________________.’
6 ‘Are there any museums in this city?’ ‘Yes, ________________.’

f) Complete com a little ou a few + uma palavra da lista:
chairs – months – rice – workmates – sugar – Italian – times – years

1 Claire speaks Chinese very well. She lived in China for a few years.
2 Could you put_____________________________in my coffee, please?
3 ‘When did Julia move to Florida?’ ‘________________ago’
4 ‘Do you speak any foreign languages?’ ‘I can speak__________________.’
5 ‘Are you going to the party alone?’ ‘No, I’m going with____________________.’
6 ‘Have you ever been to Chile?’ ‘Yes,_______________________.’
7 There isn’t much furniture in my living room — just a sofa and____________________.’
8 I’m going to the supermarket. I need to buy______________________.’

Homework – Answer Key
a) Algumas frases estão corretas, mas algumas precisam dos artigos a/an. Escreva o artigo
quando necessário.
1 I don’t have ring. a ring
2 Do you like cheese? correct
3 I never wear shirt. a shirt
4 Are you looking for job? a job
5 Kelly doesn’t eat vegetables. correct
6 Kim eats orange every morning. an orange
7I’m going to restaurant tonight. a restaurant
8 Music is wonderful thing. a wonderful thing

9 Cuba is island. an island
10 I don’t need key. a key
11 Everybody needs water. correct
12 I have great idea. a great idea
13 Can he drive car? a car
14 Do you want cup of tea? a cup of tea
15 I don’t like coffee without milk. correct
16 Don’t go out without sweater. a sweater

b) Complete com a, an ou some.
1 I read a magazine and listened to some music.

2 I need some money. I need to buy some food.
3 We always meet some interesting people at our parties.
4 I will open a window to get some fresh air.
5 Rick didn’t eat much for breakfast — only some cereal and some bread.
6 They live in a big flat. There’s a nice balcony with a table and some chairs.
7 I’m going to make a chair. So, I need some wood.
8 Listen to your mom. She always gives you some good advice.
9 I need to write a letter. I need some paper, a pencil and an eraser.

c) Qual está certo?
1 She will buy new shoe/shoes.
2 Mary has green eye/eyes.
3 Paul has blond hair/hairs.
4 Our guide told us some information/informations about the monument.
5 They’re going to sell some chair/chairs.
6 He needs to buy some new furniture/furnitures.
7 It’s difficult to find a work/job at the moment.
8 We had wonderful weather/a wonderful weather last weekend.

d) Complete com much ou many.
1 Do you eat much food?
2 There aren’t many parks in my city.
3 We don’t have much gas. We need to stop at a gas station.
4 Are there many people in the mall today?
5 Did many students fail the test?
6 Marla doesn’t need much money.
7 I wasn’t thirsty, so I didn’t drink much water.

E agora com How much ou How many.

9 How many clients are coming to the meeting?
10 How much sugar do you want in your coffee?
11 How much bread do you usually eat?
12 How many players are there in a football team?

e) Responda com a little ou a few.
1 ‘Do you have any money? ‘ ‘Yes, a little.’
2 ‘Do you need any stamps?’ ‘Yes, a few.’
3 ‘Do you want sugar in your tea?’ ‘Yes, a little.’
4 Did you take any photographs when you were on vacation?’ ‘Yes, a few.’
5 ‘Does your husband speak English?’ ‘Yes, a little.’
6 ‘Are there any museums in this city?’ ‘Yes, a few.’

f) Complete com a little ou a few + uma palavra da lista:
chairs – months – rice – workmates – sugar – Italian – times – years

1 Claire speaks Chinese very well. She lived in China for a few years.
2 Could you put a little sugar in my coffee, please?
3 ‘When did Julia move to Florida?’ ‘A few months ago.’
4 ‘Do you speak any foreign languages?’ ‘I can speak a little Italian.’
5 ‘Are you going to the party alone?’ ‘No, I’m going with a few workmates.’
6 ‘Have you ever been to Chile?’ ‘Yes, a few times.’
7 There isn’t much furniture in my living room — just a sofa and a few chairs.’
8 I’m going to the supermarket. I need to buy a little rice.’

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